Bridge Resource Management – Pilots (BRM-P)

June 24, 2021

The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended that ships’ pilots should receive Pilot Specific Bridge Resource Management training, which is supported by Pilot Associations worldwide.


The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended that ships’ pilots should receive Pilot Specific Bridge Resource Management training, which is supported by Pilot Associations worldwide. The recommendations are given in IMO Resolution 960 (XXIII) Annex 1 Paragraph 5.3.

This course has been developed to implement both these IMO and Pilotage Association recommendations by combining briefings, teamwork exercises and simulation, all based around real world events.

This course addresses the human factors that contribute to errors and accidents at sea, with particular emphasis on pilotage waters, and provides underpinning knowledge and techniques to minimise such accidents.

The course will also address, when required and deemed appropriate, updating of knowledge and skills in technological advances

Because each pilotage area is different, the course will be tailored to the client’s area of operation (if it is a single client attending), utilising, when available, case studies from past operations and incidents.

Course Aims

  1. To provide the knowledge and attitude in relation to the principles of Bridge Resource Management, with particular reference to the role of ships’ pilots, in the safe and efficient operation of ships in restricted and congested waters.
  2. To appreciate that human factors affect performance and the risk of accidents.
  3. To appreciate the value of teamwork and the use of standard operating procedures.
  4. To appreciate the latest developments in technology to utilise their capabilities


Upon completion of this course, the participant will be able to:

  1. State the principles of Bridge Resource Management.
  2. Participate in a team environment.
  3. Analyse error chains and state methods for breaking same.
  4. Appreciate the need for situational awareness.
  5. Implement a satisfactory Master/OOW – Pilot relationship.
  6. Outline the benefits of leadership, bridge organisation and teamwork.
  7. Carry out effective communications.
  8. Carry out emergency procedures.
  9. Utilise advanced technology to assist in safe operations

Main Points and Topical Outline

  1. What is Bridge Resource Management (BRM)?
  2. Error Chains.
  3. The need to maintain situational awareness.
  4. Organisation culture.
  5. Management styles and the authority gradient.
  6. Interpersonal communications.
  7. Emergency preparedness.

Where the course is provided as a Refresher, or when deemed appropriate, then it will also include some the following topics:

  • Developments in technology and information resources, e.g.:
  • Electronic charts, ECDIS, etc.
  • Integrated bridge systems and new bridge lay-outs,
  • Advanced shipboard navigation and control systems (such as auto- and track-pilot and azipod propulsion),
  • Advanced tug designs (e.g., tractor tugs) and procedures;
  • Incorporating the PPU into the pilot-bridge team relationship and other aspects of piloting;
  • Research on fatigue, cognitive science, and other human factors;
  • Regulatory requirements governing respective duties of master and bridge crew and pilot (e.g., STCW, SOLAS);
  • New regulations possibly requiring a change in bridge procedures;
  • Potential impact of changes to international (IMO) measures on the competence and operations of masters and bridge crews;
  • Positions and proposals of other organisations on master-pilot interaction, bridge team management, bridge procedures with pilot aboard, etc;
  • Casualty reports since the previous BRM-P course; and
  • Revisiting IMO Resolution A.960

Course Details

Course Duration
3 days

Course Intake Limitation
The course is for a minimum of 4 and maximum of 8 candidates

Course Participants
The course is applicable to Ships’ Pilots, Port Managers, Harbour Masters, Pilotage Superintendents and personnel associated with the safe navigation of ships in pilotage areas.